Larkspur

Delphinium spp.


Description

The larkspurs are perennial herbs growing 1 to 3 feet tall. The leaves are deeply divided from a single point into numerous fine, narrow segments and are usually confined to the bottom half of the plant. Showy, light blue, blue, purple or white flowers are arranged along the top of the erect stalk. The distinguishing characteristic of the flower is the prominent backward trailing "£spur."


Habitat

One or more species of Delphinium may be found in open pastures, hillsides or valleys of all vegetational areas of Texas.


Toxic Agent

More than 40 different diterpenoid alkaloids have been identified from Delphinium spp., but most of these are from the tall larkspurs of the mountains in the western United States. Toxicity varies greatly among species, as does the concentration of toxins. Usually, alkaloid concentrations are highest in the spring after flowering and gradually decrease as the plant matures. All parts of the plant should be considered toxic. All species of livestock may be affected, though cattle are the most susceptible. Texas larkspur species are small plants with scant foliage, and poisoning is uncommon. Despite this, all larkspurs should be considered to be potentially toxic.


Signs of Livestock Ingestion

Larkspur primarily affects the neuromuscular system and consequent signs of poisoning include: Salivation; Arched back; Stiff gait; Collapse, followed by struggle to regain feet; Muscular twitches; Death.

Within 3 to 4 hours of consumption, death can occur from either paralysis of the respiratory system or asphyxiation caused by bloating or vomiting.


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